Wo ist die Jurte der Osmanen/Oghusen?!

Dieses Thema im Forum "Das Osmanische Reich" wurde erstellt von Wolfsblut, 5. August 2010.

  1. Wolfsblut

    Wolfsblut Neues Mitglied

    Hi Leute gibt es Informationen bezüglich der Jurten von den Oghusen bzw.Osmanen um 13.Jahrhundert etc.?
    Wie haben sie gelebt und wie kann man sich das vorstellen?

    Wie lebten zu dieser Zeit die Turkmenen?In festen Häusern?

  2. Turandokht

    Turandokht Aktives Mitglied

    Wie kommst Du eigentlich darauf, daß die Turkmenen seßhaft gewesen seien? Das waren sie nämlich bis vor kurzem nur selten.
  3. lynxxx

    lynxxx Neues Mitglied

    Also ganz normale Jurten wirste höchstwahrscheinlich nicht in Museen aus frühosmanischer oder seldschukischer Zeit finden. Selbst kostbare Teppiche sind aus jenen Zeiten nur sehr selten über die Zeit erhalten geblieben, was für alle Textilien und eben auch Jurten aus Filz gilt. Aber es ist anzunehmen, dass sich die Jurte nicht großartig in Form und Funktion verändert hatte, wenn sie erstmal ihre Aufgabe optimal erfüllen konnte. Es gibt zumindest manchmal Einflüsse ihrer Form auf die steinerne Architektur.

    Es gibt im Antalya Museum eine Ethnologische Abteilung, wo z.B. Stücke der Turkmenen (Yörüken) ausgestellt sind, natürlich nicht hunderte Jahre alte Stücke.

    Ich habe eine Seite gefunden, wo man das komplette Archäologische Museum Antalya virtuell online anschauen kann!
    Kültür ve Turizm Bakanl??? Antalya Müzesi Sanal Tur Uygulamas?
    Cooool! :D

    Zahlreiche weitere Bilder gibt es auch in diesem Foto-Thread:
    Antalya Müzesi

    Ausserdem gibt es natürlich osmanische (Prunk-)zelte, die aber nix mit den Jurten zu tun haben, z.B. in Wien oder hier:
    Istanbul pictures - Military museum and Maritime museum Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at pbase.com

    Ein bisschen was zu Jurten habe ich hier gefunden:
    Frauen bei den mittelalterlichen Steppenvölkern Eurasiens. Diplomarbeit, 2005

    In der Encyclopaedia of Islam steht im Artikel über Zelte:

    "A light, prefabricated yet rigid tent has until modern times been the standard domicile of the Inner Asian steppe nomads, being usually loaded on the backs of camels for transportation. In order to present the minimum resistance to the keen steppe winds, it has usually been circular in shape. From the western steppes, the domed, felt-covered tents of Turkmen nomads, known as yurts, were spread by the migrations of the Oghuz as far west as Anatolia, although the more southerly and westerly Türkmens, such as the Avshar and Kashkā'ī, and the Anatolian Yörüks, gradually took over the use of the black tents made from goat hair, which are apparently more suitable for the damper climate of the more mountainous regions. In fact, the word yurt seems originally to have meant “homeland, encampment or camping place”, and in Orkhon and early Turkish, even “an abandoned campsite”, cf. Kāshgarī's definition ...; the basic Turkish word for “tent” seems to be ev and its cognates (Orkhon Turkish äv, äb). The term alačik and its cognates “temporary, nomadic home”, as opposed to ev “permanent home, centre of the household or group”, is also widely used throughout the Turkish world, appearing in mediaeval Persian (e.g. in the verses of Nizāmī and of Djalāl al-Dīn Rūmī) as alāčuk.

    The tent used in recent times and at the present day by the Türkmens on northeastern Persia, northern Afghānistān and the Turkmenistan SSR has been described in detail by P. A. Andrews, The White House of Khurasan: the felt tents of the Iranian Yomut and Göklen, in Iran . Jnal. of the British Institute of Persian Studies, xi (1973), 93-110, with especial reference to the two Türkmen tribes named in the title.
    These possess two main types of tent (1) The ak öy “white house” (taken from the colour of the covering felts when new) or kara öy “black house” (from the colour of the felts when old and blackened by smoke). This has a trellis wall, with a doorway in it, circular in plan, with a roof wheel supported by struts from the top of the trellis wall. The size of the tent is referred to by the number of these roof struts, which might go up to 128, yielding a tent of ca. 12 m. diameter, though 62 or 64 struts is the average; the large size of tent favoured is to accommodate an extended family. (2) The göt-tikme, essentially an öy but without the trellis walls, and regarded as an inferior form of the öy, though more portable. The wooden frames for the tent were made by a specialist class of carpenters (called uśśāt, < ustād?) of the more agricultural and semi-settled Türkmens.

    The Islamic historical sources on the Turkish migrations into the Iranian world and beyond are inexplicit on the technical details of Turkish tents in the mediaeval period, and we can only find odd gleanings, such as the information in Gardīzī, Zayn al- akhbār , ed. M. Nāzim, Berlin 1928, 81-2, cf. Barthold, Turkestan down to the Mongol invasion, 282, that when Mahmūd of Ghazna and the Kharā-Khānid Kadir Khān Yūsuf met at Samarkand in 415/1025, the Sultan had a personal tent of ruby-coloured Shushtarī brocade, with a canopy and roof of woven brocade (the tent, sarāy-parda, which allegedly held 10,000 horsemen, must have been in fact a whole series of tents forming an encampment for Mahmūd's forces).

    The early habitat of the Mongols probably comprised both the forest zone of northern Mongolia and the Lake Baikal region and also the
    steppelands. The characteristic modern Mongol felt tent or ger is essentially similar to the Türkmen öy, i.e. it has trellis walls, and the roof of light poles, also felt-covered, is born upon a roof-ring, though the shape is usually conical rather than domed. Thus a great deal of wood is required for its construction, a commodity scarce in the steppes and one which often has to be brought from a considerable distance. The Mongols do, however, have another type of tent, the maykhan, which is a low tent requiring much less wood and in recent times covered with cotton cloth purchased from Chinese traders; this is taken on Mongol caravans, with the ger used for camping at the regular pasture grounds. It seems accordingly probable that the Mongol ger evolved in the prehistoric (sc. pre-13th century) past of this people from the tents of the forest peoples, perhaps from an origin like the tepee or wigwam of the Tuva forest tribe of northern Mongolia, of Turkish peoples of this region like those dwelling in proximity to Mongol tribes around Lake Khubsugul, and of the reindeer-herding Tungus, which is a conical frame covered either with skins or birchbark (Turkish uruča, Mongol obughakay). Certainly, the Mongol epics of recent times, of the Oirot of north-western Mongolia, describe the hero's tent as made with a framework not of wood but of animal bones, and as covered not with felts (since forest dwellers have no sheep) but with animal pelts. In regard to the fittings and furnishings of the ger, the central fireplace or hearth has always been the focal point; amongst the Kazak Turks of western Mongolia, this is now usually a four-legged iron fireplace, and it is gradually replacing the old stoves.
    The earliest Mongol sources, such as the Secret history and the accounts of the Mongol expansion of the 13th century, both Islamic and European (the latter including e.g. the travel narratives of William of Rubruck and John of Plano Carpini) state that, at that time, the steppe peoples, Turks and Mongols, often transported their tents in ox carts; these last were not only highly-mobile within the steppes, but could be very quickly loaded up with the tents and the whole encampment (Mongol küriyän/güriyän “circle”) quickly broken up."
    Zuletzt bearbeitet: 6. August 2010

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